建站不啰嗦,上手跟我做(九)nginx 下载和安装

下载

nginx 需要去官网下载
图片.png

安装

1、解压 nginx

[root@localhost /]# cd /usr

[root@localhost usr]# ls

bin games java lib libexec nginx share tmp

etc include jdk lib64 local sbin src tomcat

[root@localhost usr]# cd nginx

[root@localhost nginx]# ls

nginx-1.13.12.tar.gz

[root@localhost nginx]# tar -zxvf nginx-1.13.12.tar.gz

2、安装依赖

下载模块依赖性 Nginx 需要依赖下面 3 个包

1).gzip 模块需要 zlib 库

2).rewrite 模块需要 pcre 库

3).ssl 功能需要 openssl 库

依赖包安装顺序依次为:openssl、zlib、pcre, 然后安装 Nginx 包

openssl 安装

[root@localhost] tar zxvf openssl­fips­2.0.9.tar.gz

[root@localhost] cd openssl­fips­2.0.9

[root@localhost] ./config && make && make install

pcre 安装

[root@localhost] tar zxvf pcre­8.36.tar.gz

[root@localhost] cd pcre­8.36

[root@localhost] ./configure && make && make install

zlib 安装

[root@localhost]tar zxvf zlib­1.2.8.tar.gz

[root@localhost] cd zlib­1.2.8

[root@localhost] ./configure && make && make install

3、安装 nginx

[root@localhost]tar zxvf nginx­1.8.0.tar.gz

[root@localhost] cd nginx­1.8.0

[root@localhost] ./configure && make && make install

启动命令:/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx

发现报错了:

error while loading shared libraries: libpcre.so.1: cannot open shared object file: No such file or

directory

经网上查询,这是 linux 的通病
先找到 libpcre.so.1 所在位置,然后做个软链接就可以了。

[root@localhost nginx]# sbin/nginx

sbin/nginx: error while loading shared libraries: libpcre.so.1: cannot open shared object file: No

such file or directory

[root@localhost nginx]# error while loading shared libraries: libpcre.so.1: cannot open shared

object file: No such file or directory

[root@localhost nginx]# whereis libpcre.so.1

libpcre.so: /lib64/libpcre.so.0 /usr/local/lib/libpcre.so /usr/local/lib/libpcre.so.1

[root@localhost nginx]# ln ­s /usr/local/lib/libpcre.so.1 /lib64

[root@localhost nginx]# sbin/nginx

ps:

启动:/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx

停止:/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s stop

停止:/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s quit

重新加载:/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -s reload

验证配置文件是否合法:/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -t

命令帮助:/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -h

查看 nginx 运行情况

[root@localhost sbin]# ps -ef |grep nginx

root 23693 1 0 10:21 ? 00:00:00 nginx: master process ./ngin

nobody 23694 23693 0 10:21 ? 00:00:00 nginx: worker process

root 23702 3731 0 10:21 pts/0 00:00:00 grep --color=auto nginx

  

[root@localhost sbin]# ./nginx -s quit

[root@localhost sbin]# ps -ef |grep nginx

root 23741 3731 0 10:24 pts/0 00:00:00 grep --color=auto nginx

[root@localhost /]# whereis nginx.conf

nginx: /usr/local/nginx

4、可能会出现的问题

如果没有安装 c++ 编译环境,还得安装,通过 yum install gcc­c++ 完成安装

[root@localhost nginx-1.15.8]# yum install gcc­c++

问题:

./configure: error: the HTTP rewrite module requires the PCRE library.

[root@localhost nginx-1.15.8]# yum -y install pcre-devel

问题:

./configure: error: the HTTP gzip module requires the zlib library.

[root@localhost nginx-1.15.8]# yum install -y zlib-devel

问题:

Delta RPMs disabled because /usr/bin/applydeltarpm not installed.

[root@localhost nginx-1.15.8]# yum install deltarpm

问题:

No Presto metadata available for base

[root@localhost nginx-1.15.8]# yum provides '*/applydeltarpm'

问题:

unknown directive "ssl" in /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf:38

[root@localhost nginx-1.15.8]# ./configure --with-http_ssl_module

问题:

./configure: error: SSL modules require the OpenSSL library.

[root@localhost nginx-1.15.8]#  yum -y install openssl openssl-devel

[root@localhost nginx-1.15.8]# ./configure --with-http_ssl_module

[root@localhost nginx-1.15.8]#cp /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx.bak

[root@localhost nginx-1.15.8]# cp -rfp objs/nginx /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx

cp: overwrite ‘/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx’? y

问题:
checking for C compiler ... not found
./configure: error: C compiler cc is not found


[root@VM_48_15_centos nginx-1.15.8]# yum install gcc gcc-c++ kernel-devel

5、tomcat 服务器部署项目:

[root@localhost apache-tomcat-8.5.31]# cd webapps

[root@localhost webapps]# ls

docs FirstMavenProject host-manager ROOT

examples FirstMavenProject.war manager

[root@localhost webapps]# pwd

/usr/tomcat/apache-tomcat-8.5.31/webapps

6、启动 tomcat 服务:

[root@localhost bin]# ./startup.sh

Using CATALINA_BASE: /usr/tomcat/apache-tomcat-8.5.31

Using CATALINA_HOME: /usr/tomcat/apache-tomcat-8.5.31

Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: /usr/tomcat/apache-tomcat-8.5.31/temp

Using JRE_HOME: /usr

Using CLASSPATH: /usr/tomcat/apache-tomcat-8.5.31/bin/bootstrap.jar:/usr/tomcat/apache-tomcat-8.5.31/bin/tomcat-juli.jar

Tomcat started.

[root@localhost bin]# pwd

/usr/tomcat/apache-tomcat-8.5.31/bin

7、配置 nginx

[root@localhost conf]# vi nginx.conf

7.1 代理模式

访问http://192.168.1.116:80/apache即为访问http://192.168.1.116:8080/;

访问:http://192.168.1.116:80/First 即为访问 http://192.168.1.116:8080/FirstMavenProject;

访问:http://192.168.1.116:80/Firstmaven 即为访问 http://192.168.1.119:8080/FirstMavenProject;

#user nobody;

worker_processes 1;
 
events {

       worker_connections 1024;

}

http {

       include mime.types;
       default_type application/octet-stream;
       sendfile on;

      keepalive_timeout 65;
server {

      listen 80;

      server_name localhost;  

location / {

       root html;

       index index.html index.htm;

}

location /apache {

      proxy_pass http://192.168.1.116:8080/;

      proxy_redirect default;

      #proxy_set_header Host $host;

     proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;

      proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;

      proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;

       proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;

}

location /First{

       proxy_pass http://192.168.1.116:8080/FirstMavenProject;

       proxy_redirect default;

       #proxy_set_header Host $host;

       proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;

       proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;

       proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;

       proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;

}

location /Firstmaven {

      proxy_pass http://192.168.1.119:8080/FirstMavenProject;

      proxy_redirect default;

      #proxy_set_header Host $host;

      proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;

       proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;

       proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;

       proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;

}

     error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;

     ocation = /50x.html {

     root html;

}
 
}

}

通过访问

http://139.105.146.63:443/symphony

来访问本机

http://139.105.146.63/symphony

80 端口上的服务

#user nobody;
      worker_processes 1;
events {

      worker_connections 1024;

}

http {

      include mime.types;

      default_type application/octet-stream;
      sendfile on;
      keepalive_timeout 65;
server {

      listen 443;

     server_name localhost;
location / {

     root html;

      index index.html index.htm;

}

location /symphony {

      #proxy_pass http://localhost:80/symphony;

      proxy_pass http://139.105.146.63:80/symphony;

      proxy_redirect default;

     #proxy_set_header Host $host;

     proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;

     proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;

     proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;

     proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;

}

    error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;

location = /50x.html {

      root html;

 }

  
 }


}

7.2 负载均衡模式

访问 nginx 地址http://192.168.1.116:80/maven/

会有多个服务器承担负载

多个服务器的路径会根据http://mavenProject/FirstMavenProject; 动态生成

根据 mavenProject 获取对应的负载均衡列表

upstream mavenProject{

server 192.168.1.119:8080 weight=1;

server 192.168.1.116:8080 weight=1;

}
#user nobody;
     worker_processes 1;
events {

      worker_connections 1024;

}
http {

     include mime.types;

     default_type application/octet-stream;

     sendfile on;

server {

     listen 80;

     server_name localhost;

location / {

     root html;

     index index.html index.htm;

}

location /apache {

      proxy_pass http://192.168.1.116:8080/;

      proxy_redirect default;

      #proxy_set_header Host $host;

     proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;

     proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;

     proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;

     proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;

}

location /First{

     proxy_pass http://192.168.1.116:8080/FirstMavenProject;

     proxy_redirect default;

     #proxy_set_header Host $host;

     proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;

     proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;

     proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;

     proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;

}

location /Firstmaven {

    proxy_pass http://192.168.1.119:8080/FirstMavenProject;

    proxy_redirect default;

    #proxy_set_header Host $host;

    proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;

    proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;

    proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;

    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;

}

location /maven {

    proxy_pass http://mavenProject/FirstMavenProject;

    proxy_redirect default;

   #proxy_set_header Host $host;

    proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;

    proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;

    proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;

    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;

}

error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;

location = /50x.html {

   root html;

  }

}
upstream mavenProject{

    server 192.168.1.119:8080 weight=1;

    server 192.168.1.116:8080 weight=1;

  }

}

7.3 通过域名访问

7378E09D7CA64E6F92B79A3D511C0735.jpg

访问

http://qiankunpingtai.cn:443/

转发到

http://39.105..:80/symphony

#user nobody;
worker_processes 1;
events {

worker_connections 1024;

}
http {

include mime.types;

default_type application/octet-stream;
sendfile on;
keepalive_timeout 65;

server {

listen 443;

server_name qiankunpingtai.cn;
location / {

#proxy_pass http://localhost:80/symphony;

proxy_pass http://39.105.146.63:80/symphony;

proxy_redirect default;

#proxy_set_header Host $host;

proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;

proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;

proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;

proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;

}
error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;

location = /50x.html {

    root html;

   } 
}
 
}


7.4 带 ssl 证书访问

通过阿里云购买 ssl 证书需要先登录阿里云。
也可以通过其它渠道购买 ssl 云证书。
2E711889275F41498BADBF9509B2F909.jpg
下载证书放到服务器上
下载 nginx 对应的
1E485215941C44909474D8A156C7AA76.jpg

[root@iz2ze70zrtwzm9p0l3p86nz nginx]# pwd

/usr/local/nginx

[root@iz2ze70zrtwzm9p0l3p86nz nginx]# mkdir cert

[root@iz2ze70zrtwzm9p0l3p86nz nginx]# ls

cert client_body_temp conf fastcgi_temp html logs proxy_temp sbin scgi_temp uwsgi_temp

[root@iz2ze70zrtwzm9p0l3p86nz nginx]# cd cert

[root@iz2ze70zrtwzm9p0l3p86nz cert]# ls

[root@iz2ze70zrtwzm9p0l3p86nz cert]# ls

*_qiankunpingtai.cn.key *_qiankunpingtai.cn.pem
#user nobody;
worker_processes 1;
events {

worker_connections 1024;

}
http {
    include mime.types;
   default_type application/octet-stream;
   client_max_body_size 20M;
   client_body_buffer_size 128k;
   sendfile on;
   keepalive_timeout 65;
server {
    listen 443 ssl;
   server_name qiankunpingtai.cn; # 你的域名
   ssl_certificate /usr/local/nginx/cert/*_qiankunpingtai.cn.pem; # 改成你的证书的名字
   ssl_certificate_key /usr/local/nginx/cert/*_qiankunpingtai.cn.key; # 你的证书的名字
   ssl_session_timeout 5m;
   ssl_ciphers ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256:ECDHE:ECDH:AES:HIGH:!NULL:!aNULL:!MD5:!ADH:!RC4;
   ssl_protocols TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
   ssl_prefer_server_ciphers on;
location /symphony {
    proxy_pass http://localhost:8080/symphony;
    proxy_redirect default;
    proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;
    proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;
    proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;

}
location / {
    proxy_pass https://qkpt.top/mnt;
    proxy_redirect default;
    proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;
    proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;
    proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
}
}
server {
    listen 80; 
    server_name qiankunpingtai.cn;// 你的域名
    rewrite ^(.*)$ https://$host$1 permanent;// 把http的域名请求转成https

    } 
}

缓存静态资源

server {
	listen 80;
	server_name erp.qkpt.top;
	location / {
      		proxy_pass http://localhost:5555/;
      		proxy_redirect default;
      		proxy_set_header Host $host:$server_port;
     		proxy_set_header REMOTE-HOST $remote_addr;
      		proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
       		proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;

		}	
        location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf|ttf)$
        {
# 这里访问路径结尾不需要/
		proxy_pass http://localhost:5555;
                expires 30d;
        }
        location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
        {
# 这里访问路径结尾不需要/
		proxy_pass http://localhost:5555;
                expires 1h;
        }
}

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